Buying Art: A Glossary For Beginners


Kathryn Markel's Glossary for terms associated with Fine Art Buying is a Must-Have Resource. 

We have mirrored the common words and added a variety of others that are useful in auction based settings, though much is the same:

Understanding the basic rules of art buying and selling can save you some substantial money and help prevent fraud and theft when making large purchases. 

Original: 
For such a straightforward word, it's a dreadfully stacked one. Fundamental, a unique masterpiece implies that the craftsman made it themselves with their own particular hands. Unique can mean it's exceptional, however not generally. Try not to conflate "unique" with "one of a kind"! Unique can likewise allude to sorts of work where there are various firsts, similar to etchings or lithographs. For whatever length of time that the craftsman was really in charge of the creation of those prints, every one is viewed as a unique, regardless of the possibility that there are huge amounts of indistinguishable works.

"Original" can also be used by tacky dealers to trick you into buying something worthless. Usually, this translates into the dealer asking an artist to add a small touch of paint to a poster, which would make it technically hand-colored and, therefore, legally original. (Don't worry, we'll be writing about how to distinguish a trustworthy gallery from a tacky dealer in a future post.)

Reproduction:
Basically, a proliferation is a duplicate. Somebody takes a unique gem and either duplicates it by hand utilizing a similar method, or duplicates it utilizing photographic systems like prints, publications, or silk-screens. Reproductions are less significant than firsts, even the ones that are made by hand. Those tasteless merchants may attempt to shroud that something is a propagation, so if something appears like a pipe dream give, it presumably is.

Print:
A print can be made in many different ways (some of the most common will be described below). An artist creates a design on an object (the "matrix"), which can be made from a wood block, metal plate, or stone. That image can then be endlessly translated onto a piece of paper (the print) using ink or paint. This is an authentic piece of art, but a print can also refer to a photographic repoduction. 

Edition:
When artists make prints, they predetermine how many they're going to make of a single image at a specific size. This is called an edition. Each edition print will be individually numbered (3/10 means that it's the third print in that edition of ten impressions), signed, and dated. This information will either be on the print itself, or on a separate certificate. 

Limited Edition Print:
A constrained release print ought to imply that exclusive a specific number of those prints exist, yet it doesn't generally, because of those shady merchants once more. Some state laws don't restrict distributers from printing more duplicates of a similar picture, even after they've achieved the quantity of prints expressed in the first version. Along these lines, on the off chance that they change something marginally about the first picture - like the size, kind of paper, printing innovation, or even simply calling one the American release and the other the European version - they can at present claim it's a restricted version. At the point when the interest is a picture's irregularity, this practice depreciates each print.

Proofs:
The images that are created when an artist, printer, or publisher is testing their matrix or printing process is called a proof. Traditionally, proofs are used as rough drafts of the final image and have notions made by the artist for adjustments in color, design, or the technique. The allure here is the opportunity to get closer to the thinking of the artist, and its uniqueness, so they're typically more expensive than the works in the regular edition. 

Lithography:
A lithography is a type of print that is made by creating an image on a smooth, flat piece of limestone. The artist uses a greasy crayon or inks to draw the pattern, then wets the stone. The greast drawing repels the water, and then oil-based ink is applied with a roller and is repelled by the wet parts of the stone, leaving only the image inked. When a piece of paper is pressed against the stone, the inked image is transferred in reverse to the page. 

Monoprints versus Monotypes:
These terms can often be used interchangeably, but there are important differences. A monoprint has a single source for the image (like an etching), and is created by hand coloring or surface alteration. Each monoprint is unique. While there may be a series of similar monoprints created from the same image, they would not be identical. 

A monotype, on the other hand, do not have a repeatable matrix. A thin film of ink is rolled onto a blank plate onto which the artist directly creates the image by drawing into it or selectively rubbing parts of it off. 

Screenprint or Silkscreen Printing:
Screenprints or silkscreen prints are created by placing a stencil of a design on a silk or nylon mesh screen that is attached to a frame. The paper or material the image will be transferred to is secured on the other side of the screen. Then, ink is scraped over the stencil with a squeegee and onto the paper through the uncovered areas of the fabric. 

C-Print or C-Type:
In a nutshell, C-Prints or C-Types are color photographs. They're made with film and traditionally developed. "Digital C prints" describe the process of a photographic file later being developed with conventional photographic chemicals. 

Digital Print:
There is an apparently interminable vocabulary used to depict computerized prints, yet they all allude to the way toward making advanced photography. They might be advanced from beginning to end. They may utilize a computerized camera and print on customary photographic paper. They may deliver a photographic negative that is imprinted on an advanced inkjet printer. They then may change their dialect to portray distinctive methods or qualities of their work that recognize their pieces, similar to the kind of paper or ink they utilize, or advancements that went into their procedure. In the event that it's not clear, ask the keeper or gallerist! They'll have all the data you'll require about how it was made.

 With these basic terms, you'll have the understanding you need to smartly navigate a conversation and buying opportunity and scrutinize the art you're considering and to make informed, worthwhile buying decisions. Cheers!