Johannes VERMEER (1632-1675)



Cropped version of Jan Vermeer van Delft 002.jpg




Johannes Vemeer was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of middle-class life. Vermeer was a moderately successful provincial genre painter in his lifetime. He evidently was not wealthy, leaving his wife and children in debt at his death, perhaps because he produced relatively few paintings.[4]
Vermeer worked slowly and with great care, and frequently used very expensive pigments. He is particularly renowned for his masterly treatment and use of light in his work.[5]
Vermeer painted mostly domestic interior scenes. "Almost all his paintings are apparently set in two smallish rooms in his house in Delft; they show the same furniture and decorations in various arrangements and they often portray the same people, mostly women."[6]
He was recognized during his lifetime in Delft and The Hague, but his modest celebrity gave way to obscurity after his death. He was barely mentioned in Arnold Houbraken's major source book on 17th-century Dutch painting (Grand Theatre of Dutch Painters and Women Artists), and was thus omitted from subsequent surveys of Dutch art for nearly two centuries.[7][8] In the 19th century, Vermeer was rediscovered by Gustav Friedrich Waagen and Théophile Thoré-Bürger, who published an essay attributing 66 pictures to him, although only 34 paintings are universally attributed to him today.[2] Since that time, Vermeer's reputation has grown, and he is now acknowledged as one of the greatest painters of the Dutch Golden Age.

Nathaiel CURRIER (1813-1888) James merritt IVES (1824-1895)




Currier and Ives was a successful American printmaking firm headed by Nathaniel Currier and James Merritt Ives based in New York City from 1834 to 1907. The prolific firm produced prints from paintings by fine artists as black and white lithographs that were hand colored. Lithographic prints could be reproduced quickly and purchased inexpensively, and the firm called itself "the Grand Central Depot for Cheap and Popular Prints" and advertised its lithographs as "colored engravings for the people".[1]


                                                                                                    A Brush for the Leadlithograph by Currier and Ives, 1867.


Currier's early history

Nathaniel Currier (1813–88) was born in Roxbury, Massachusetts on March 27, 1813, the second of four children. His parents Nathaniel and Hannah Currier were distant cousins who lived a humble and spartan life. Tragedy struck when Nathaniel was eight years old, when his father unexpectedly died, leaving Nathaniel and his eleven-year-old brother Lorenzo to provide for the family: six-year-old sister Elizabeth and two-year-old brother Charles, as well as their mother.
Nathaniel worked a series of odd jobs to support the family and, at fifteen, he started what became a lifelong career when he apprenticed in the Boston lithography shop of William and John Pendleton.[2] In 1833 at age twenty, he moved to Philadelphia to do contract work for M.E.D. Brown, a noted engraver and printer.[3] Currier's early lithographs were issued under the name of Stodart & Currier, a result of the partnership that he created in 1834 with a local New York printmaker named Stodart. The two men specialized in "job" printing and made a variety of print products, including music manuscripts. Currier became dissatisfied with the poor economic return of their business venture and ended the partnership in 1835. He set up shop alone, working as "N. Currier, Lithographer" until 1856.
In 1835, he created a lithograph that illustrated a fire sweeping through New York City's business district. The print of the Merchant's Exchange sold thousands of copies in four days. Currier realized that there was a market for current news, so he turned out several more disaster prints and other inexpensive lithographs that illustrated local and national events, such as "Ruins of the Planter's Hotel, New Orleans, which fell at two O’clock on the Morning of May 15, 1835, burying 50 persons, 40 of whom Escaped with their Lives".[3] He quickly gained a reputation as an accomplished lithographer.[4] In 1840, he produced "Awful Conflagration of the Steam Boat Lexington", which was so successful that he was given a weekly insert in the New York Sun. In this year, Currier's firm began to shift its focus from job printing to independent print publishing.[5]

The partnership with Ives


Brooklyn MuseumAmerican Homestead Spring, Currier and Ives

Awful Conflagration of the Steam Boat LEXINGTON in Long Island Sound on Monday Eveg, Jany 13th,(1840)

View on the Harlem River, N. Y., Currier and Ives, 1852
The name Currier & Ives first appeared in 1857, when Currier invited the company's bookkeeper and accountant James Merritt Ives (1824–95) to become his partner. Ives was born on March 5, 1824 in New York City, and he married Caroline Clark in 1852. She was the sister-in-law of Nathaniel's brother Charles Currier, and it was Charles who recommended Ives to his brother. Nathaniel Currier soon noticed Ives's dedication to his business, and his artistic knowledge and insight into what the public wanted. The younger man quickly became the general manager of the firm, handling the financial side of the business by modernizing the bookkeeping, reorganizing inventory, and streamlining the print process.[5] Ives also helped Currier interview potential artists and craftsmen. He had a flair for gauging popular interests and aided in selecting the images that the firm would publish and expanding the firm's range to include political satire and sentimental scenes, such as sleigh rides in the country and steamboat races. In 1857, Currier made Ives a full partner.[6][7]

Sandro BOTTICELLI (1445-1510)



Sandro Botticelli
Sandro Botticelli 083.jpg


Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later in his Vita of Botticelli as a "golden age". Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then, his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting.
Among Botticelli's best-known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera.

Ammi PHILIPS (1788-1865)



Ammi Phillips  was an American itinerant portrait painter active in ConnecticutMassachusetts, and New York for five decades. After his death he was forgotten for decades until his oeuvre was reconstructed by Barbara and Larry Holdridge, collectors and students of American folk art, with the eventual support of Mary Black, art historian, after many friendly arguments and challenges to prove their contention that Phillips was not only the Kent Limner but also the earlier Border Limner. The Holdridges' extensive search in three states for Phillips paintings and for biographical details to be found in the Census Bureau and other written records, as well as the fading memories of still-living relatives of the artist and his portrait subjects (from one of whom they learned the pronunciation of the artist's first name, "Amm-eye") was triggered by their purchase in 1958 of one of the very few portraits signed on the reverse by the artist: "George C. Sunderland Painted When at the Age of 21 years by Mr, Ammi, Phillips, In the fall 1840."[1]

MICHELANGELO DI lodovinco Buonarroti SIMONI(1475-1564)



Michelangelo
Miguel Ángel, por Daniele da Volterra (detalle, brightened).jpg
Portrait of Michelangelo by Daniele da Volterra
BornMichelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
6 March 1475
Caprese near ArezzoRepublic of Florence (present-day Tuscany, Italy)
Died18 February 1564 (aged 88)
RomePapal States (present-day Italy)
Known forSculpture, painting, architecture, and poetry
Notable work
MovementHigh Renaissance
Signature
Michelangelo Signature2.svg
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni  was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.[1]Considered to be the greatest living artist during his lifetime, he has since been described as one of the greatest artists of all time.[1] Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival and fellow FlorentineMedici client, Leonardo da Vinci.

Henri-Emile-Benoit MATISSE (1869-1954)


Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse, 1913, photograph by Alvin Langdon Coburn.jpg
Henri Matisse, 1913, by Alvin Langdon Coburn
BornHenri-Émile-Benoît Matisse
31 December 1869
Le Cateau-CambrésisNord, France
Died3 November 1954 (aged 84)
NiceAlpes-Maritimes, France
NationalityFrench
EducationAcadémie JulianWilliam-Adolphe BouguereauGustave Moreau
Known forPainting, printmaking, sculpture, drawing, collage
Notable workWoman with a Hat (1905)
The Joy of Life (1906)
Nu bleu (1907)
The Dessert: Harmony in Red (1908)
La Danse (1909)
L'Atelier Rouge (1911)
MovementFauvismModernismPost-Impressionism
Patron(s)Gertrude SteinEtta ConeClaribel ConeSarah SteinAlbert C. Barnes
Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsmanprintmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter.[1]
Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture.

Tiziano VECELLI (1488-1576)



Titian
Tizian 090.jpg
Self-Portrait, c. 1567; Museo del Prado, Madrid.
BornTiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio
c. 1488
Pieve di CadoreRepublic of Venice
Died27 August 1576 (aged about 88)
Venice
OccupationItalian Renaissance artist
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio known in English as Titian , was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno (in VenetoRepublic of Venice).[3] During his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth.
Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars" (recalling the famous final line of Dante's Paradiso), Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art.[4]

Peter Paul RUBENS (1577-1640)




Peter Paul Rubens
Sir Peter Paul Rubens - Portrait of the Artist - Google Art Project.jpg
Self-portrait, 1623, Royal Collection
BornPeter Paul Rubens
28 June 1577
SiegenNassau-DillenburgHoly Roman Empire (now North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany)
Died30 May 1640 (aged 62)
AntwerpSpanish Netherlands (now Belgium)
NationalityFlemish
EducationTobias Verhaecht
Adam van Noort
Otto van Veen
Known forPainting, Printmaking
MovementFlemish Baroque
Baroque
Signature
Rubens autograph.png
Sir Peter Paul Rubens was a Flemish/Netherlandish draughtsman and painter. He is widely considered as the most notable artist of Flemish Baroque art school. A proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasized movement, colour, and sensuality, Rubens is well known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England. Rubens was a prolific artist. The catalogue of his works by Michael Jaffé lists 1,403 pieces, excluding numerous copies made in his workshop.[2]

Drew STRUZAN (MAY 14, 1947)



Drew Struzan
Drew Struzan (7588245948).jpg
Struzan at the 2012 Comic-Con International
BornMarch 18, 1947 (age 69)
Oregon City, Oregon, United States
NationalityAmerican
EducationArt Center College of Design
Known forPoster art, Illustration
AwardsSaturn Award, 2002
Inkpot Award, 2010
Saul Bass Award, 2014
Sergio Award, 2016
Drew Struzan  is an American artist known for his more than 150 movie posters, which include all the films in the Indiana JonesBack to the Future, and Star Wars film series. He has also painted album covers, collectibles, and book covers.

Early life[edit]

Drew Struzan was born May 14, 1947 in Oregon City, Oregon.[2] In 1965, at age 18, he enrolled at the Art Center College of Design, then in West Los Angeles, California.